MBBS, which stands for Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, is a five-year undergraduate medical degree program designed for those aspiring to become doctors. It is a professional degree in the field of Medical Science.

Eligibility for MBBS: To enroll in an MBBS program, candidates must meet certain eligibility criteria, including:

  • Passing Class 12 with a Science stream that includes Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (PCB) subjects.
  • Being at least 17 years of age.

MBBS Course Duration: The MBBS course spans five years, providing students with comprehensive training in medical practices, diagnosis, treatment, and surgical procedures.

MBBS Admission: Admission to MBBS programs is primarily based on the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET). Popular institutions offering MBBS programs include AIIMS Delhi, Christian Medical College, Kasturba Medical College (Manipal), Kasturba Medical College (Mangalore), Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, among others.

After Completing MBBS: Upon completing the MBBS course, graduates earn qualifications as medical practitioners or doctors. The average salary for MBBS graduates typically ranges from INR 2.5 LPA to INR 15 LPA.

MBBS Course Details: MBBS, short for Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, is a five-year undergraduate medical degree program. This program equips students with the skills needed for medical diagnoses, treatments, and surgical procedures.

MBBS Fee Structure: The cost of an MBBS degree in India can vary widely based on whether the institution is public or private and its location. Government medical colleges generally have lower fees, ranging from INR 10,000 to INR 50,000 per year, while private medical colleges may charge INR 3 Lakh to INR 25 Lakh per year.

Why Pursue MBBS? There are several compelling reasons to choose an MBBS career path:

Helping Others: Doctors have the opportunity to positively impact people's lives by diagnosing, treating, and preventing illnesses, improving overall health and well-being.

Job Stability and Demand: The healthcare industry consistently demands medical professionals due to population growth and aging.

Respected Profession: Medicine is a highly respected field where doctors are considered experts and play a critical role in saving lives and public health.

Diverse Specializations: Medicine offers various specializations such as Surgery, Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Radiology, Cardiology, Dermatology, and more.

Intellectual Challenge: The field of medicine requires critical thinking, problem-solving, and continuous learning.

Financial Rewards: While medical education can be costly, the potential for financial stability and a rewarding income over the long term is appealing.

MBBS Eligibility Criteria: Candidates aiming for MBBS need to fulfill certain eligibility criteria:

  • Minimum marks may vary, but typically require at least 50% in the intermediate examination.
  • Successful completion of the NEET (National Eligibility Cumulative Entrance Test).
  • Completion of Class 12 with Physics, Chemistry, and Biology as core subjects.

MBBS Entrance Exam 2024: Admission to MBBS in India is primarily based on the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET), accepted by both government and private institutions. The NEET exam is conducted by the National Testing Agency (NTA) and assesses candidates' knowledge of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology.

MBBS Exam Preparation: Preparing for NEET and MBBS requires careful planning and dedicated study. Some key steps for effective preparation include:

  • Understanding the NEET exam pattern, which includes multiple-choice questions in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology.
  • Creating a structured study schedule covering all subjects and topics.
  • Building a strong foundation before tackling more advanced concepts.
  • Regular practice with sample papers and previous years' question papers.
  • Taking full-length NEET mock tests to simulate exam conditions.

MBBS Subjects

The Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, commonly referred to as MBBS, is an undergraduate degree program specializing in medical sciences. This program encompasses a wide array of subjects essential to the medical field, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, and many others. In India, MBBS subjects are highly regarded and attract individuals passionate about medicine, driven by a desire to save lives during emergencies, epidemics, accidents, and more.

The curriculum of MBBS subjects is meticulously designed to equip students with comprehensive knowledge and skills required by the medical industry. These subjects provide both theoretical insights and practical exposure, covering areas such as medicine, surgery, microbiology, human anatomy, and beyond. MBBS subjects prioritize real-world experiences and expertise, preparing candidates for diverse roles in the medical field, including cardiologists, physicians, chief medical officers, and professors.

Key Facts about MBBS Subjects:


  • The MBBS program spans five and a half years, followed by a mandatory one-year internship at a hospital. The internship serves as a crucial opportunity for students to apply the knowledge gained from textbooks during their previous four years of study.
  • The program operates on a semester system, with a total of nine semesters. MBBS subjects are distributed across these semesters.
  • MBBS subjects are organized into three distinct phases: Pre-clinical, Para-clinical, and Clinical.
    • Pre-clinical phase (Semesters 1 and 2) covers Anatomy, Biochemistry, and Physiology.
    • Para-clinical phase (Semesters 3, 4, and 5) includes subjects like Community Medicine, Forensic Medicine, Microbiology, and Pharmacology. Clinical postings in wards and outpatient departments (OPDs) commence during this phase.
    • Clinical phase (Semesters 6, 7, 8, and 9) encompasses a wide range of subjects, including Community Medicine, Pediatrics, Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medicine, Psychiatry, Dermatology, Surgery, Ophthalmology, Orthopedics, E.N.T. (Ear, Nose, and Throat), and Anesthesiology. Clinical postings continue throughout this phase.
  • Three professional examinations are conducted during the MBBS program, one at the end of each phase:
    • The first professional examination concludes the pre-clinical phase (or Semester 2).
    • The second professional examination marks the end of the para-clinical phase (or Semester 5).
    • The third professional examination is conducted at the culmination of the clinical phase (or Semester 9).

List of MBBS Subjects:

MBBS subjects offer a comprehensive understanding of various medical disciplines, encompassing both theoretical knowledge and practical skills. These subjects are grouped into three categories: pre-clinical, para-clinical, and clinical. Here is an overview of the subjects studied during the MBBS program:


Pre-clinical Subjects:


  1. Anatomy
  2. Biochemistry
  3. Physiology

Para-clinical Subjects:

  1. Forensic Medicine and Toxicology
  2. Microbiology
  3. Pathology
  4. Pharmacology
  5. Anesthesiology
  6. Community Medicine

Clinical Subjects:

  1. Medicine
  2. Obstetrics and Gynecology
  3. Ophthalmology
  4. Orthopedics
  5. Otorhinolaryngology (E.N.T.)
  6. Pediatrics
  7. Psychiatry
  8. Dermatology
  9. Surgery
  10. Clinical Postings
  11. Outpatient Departments (O.P.D.s)

Alongside the curriculum, students are required to complete a six-month internship as an integral part of their MBBS program, further enhancing their practical skills and clinical experience. The extensive coverage of core and elective MBBS subjects equips graduates with the knowledge and competencies needed for a fulfilling career in the medical field.


In India, MD (Doctor of Medicine) and MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery) are both esteemed medical degrees, each signifying distinct stages of medical education and training.

MBBS - Building the Foundation

  • MBBS is an undergraduate program that spans 5.5 years, encompassing a one-year internship. It becomes accessible to candidates following the completion of Class 12, particularly in the Science stream.
  • This program imparts a comprehensive grounding in medicine, spanning basic medical sciences, clinical subjects, and hands-on training in various medical disciplines.
  • Graduates holding an MBBS degree are typically known as "Doctors" or "Medical Practitioners" and can embark on their careers as general physicians.
  • For those seeking to specialize in a specific medical field, pursuing postgraduate education, such as MD or MS, is a common pathway after completing MBBS.

MD - Specialized Expertise

  • MD is a postgraduate medical degree in India that offers specialized training in a particular medical specialty or subspecialty.
  • To enroll in an MD program, individuals usually need to have completed their MBBS degree and qualify in the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test for Postgraduate (NEET-PG).
  • MD programs in India typically span three years and are available in various specializations, including Internal Medicine, Surgery, Paediatrics, Radiology, Dermatology, and more.
  • MD graduates are considered specialists in their chosen fields and are qualified to practice as specialized physicians.
  • They can work in hospitals, clinics, research institutions, or establish private practices.
  • After completing MD, some doctors may opt to pursue further super-specialization through DM (Doctorate of Medicine) or DNB (Diplomate of National Board) courses.

MD vs MBBS: Key Highlights

To differentiate between MD and MBBS, refer to the table below, which outlines critical aspects of both programs, including course level, duration, average fees, entrance exams, admission procedures, job profiles, average salaries, and more.

MD vs MBBS: A Comparative Overview

Understanding the distinction between MD and MBBS is crucial for candidates contemplating their medical education and career path. This comparison provides insights into the differences, eligibility criteria, admission processes, job opportunities, career prospects, average salaries, and more.

MBBS careers in India are not just among the most challenging but also some of the most esteemed. The professional prospects after completing an MBBS degree extend far beyond clinical practice and teaching. With the expansion of healthcare infrastructure, the demand for medical professionals in India is on the rise, making the healthcare sector a significant source of employment in the coming years.

Apart from hospitals, there is a burgeoning demand for MBBS professionals in biomedical companies, health centers, laboratories, nursing homes, polyclinics, private practices, and more. MBBS serves as the initial step toward realizing one's dream of becoming a doctor. Upon graduation, students typically embark on internships at colleges or hospitals. Some choose to practice in private hospitals or even establish their clinics. Numerous prestigious Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) and government entities, including railways, military forces, and state hospitals, also offer various positions for MBBS graduates. Keep reading to explore the wide array of employment opportunities and careers in the field of MBBS.

Why Choose MBBS:

India, as a rapidly growing nation, has a rich history of medical advancements over the years.

The government aims to increase public spending on healthcare from 0.9% to 2-3% of GDP, emphasizing the importance of adequate funding for healthcare professionals.

The Indian hospital market, driven by significant investor demand, is projected to grow from $61.8 billion in 2017 to $132 billion in 2023.

The 2017 National Health Policy (NHP) highlights the need to strengthen the existing medical education system and develop mid-level healthcare professionals. NITI Aayog has launched a strategy to create 1.5 million jobs in the public health sector by 2022-23.

Top Careers in MBBS: Following the completion of an MBBS degree, candidates have a plethora of career options within the healthcare sector. From heart surgeons and dermatologists to pediatricians and medical officers, MBBS graduates can choose from various well-paid job roles, including:

General Physicians: These professionals manage a wide range of general adult diseases, providing comprehensive care. Specialists, on the other hand, focus on specific body systems or ailments.

Chief Medical Officers: These senior physicians oversee patient care across all departments, managing daily operations, offering clinical guidance, and addressing any arising challenges. They also contribute to medical research and supervise clinical studies.

Surgeons: Surgeons diagnose and treat various injuries and illnesses through surgical interventions, ranging from broken bones to cancer and congenital deformities like cleft palates.

Pediatricians: These specialists are dedicated to child healthcare, offering medical care to both acutely and chronically ill children, as well as preventive health services for healthy children.

Cardiologists: Cardiologists focus exclusively on preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart conditions, possessing specialized knowledge about the heart, arteries, veins, and heart disease treatment.

Dermatologists: Dermatologists specialize in disorders related to the skin, hair, and nails, providing expertise in the diagnosis and management of conditions such as rashes, wrinkles, psoriasis, and melanoma.

Scope in MBBS: While most MBBS graduates choose to work in hospitals, there are numerous opportunities in various sectors:

Government Sector: Opportunities abound in government jobs, whether in teaching or the defense sector. Success in the government healthcare sector requires focus, ambition, and hard work due to intense competition.

Indian Railways: Aspiring to work for the Indian Railways post-MBBS requires clearing the UPSC Combined Medical Services (CMSE) examination. Railway medical officers provide comprehensive healthcare to railway employees, retirees, and their dependents, as well as other personnel like contractors and vendors.

Armed Forces: Serving as a Navy doctor offers the chance to practice military medicine while caring for service members and their families, both in peacetime and during conflicts.

Biomedical Companies: Medical affairs physicians play a crucial role in developing medical strategies for medicines and bridging data gaps to provide robust evidence for healthcare solutions.

Nursing Homes: Medical practitioners in nursing homes regularly assess and treat residents. They include primary care physicians, internists with special training in nursing home care, and specialists who exclusively work with nursing home patients. These doctors engage with patients, their families, nursing home staff, and other physicians to discuss health status and treatment options.

The MBBS path is not only rewarding but also rife with opportunities to make a significant impact on the healthcare landscape in India. Whether in a traditional medical role or exploring diverse career paths, MBBS graduates are poised to contribute to the nation's healthcare sector in various capacities.

A Bachelor of Technology (BTech) is an undergraduate program that spans four years. It is an interdisciplinary course that combines theoretical knowledge with practical applications, catering to various engineering streams such as Computer Science Engineering, Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, Biochemical Engineering, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Robotics and Automation Engineering, Automobile Engineering, and Food Technology, among others. This wide array of specializations empowers students to select a course that aligns with their individual interests and career goals.

BTech Syllabus: Key Insights

Course Structure: The BTech program is typically structured over four years, divided into eight semesters. Each semester encompasses a set number of subjects, with credits allocated accordingly.

Common Subjects: Irrespective of the chosen specialization, BTech students encounter common subjects, including Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, English, Mechanics, Electrical Technology, Programming, Engineering Drawing and Graphics, and Data Structures. These subjects provide a foundational understanding of technical terminology and the theoretical and practical facets of engineering that find real-world applications.

Emphasis on Innovation: BTech places a strong emphasis on fostering innovation and equipping students with self-driven skills. This approach is integral to the program's duration.

Credit Requirements: To successfully complete the BTech program, students are required to achieve a minimum credit score. Additionally, each student is mandated to undertake a project at the commencement of their fourth year. The nature, duration, and credit allocation of this project may differ from one college or university to another. For instance, in prestigious institutions like the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), the final-year project can be conducted either within or outside the department of IIT, with credit allocation determined by the selected project and department within the same institution.

Elective Courses: Beyond the core subjects, BTech students have the flexibility to choose elective courses in accordance with their preferences and interests. These elective courses can be selected during any semester, and their availability varies among colleges and universities.

In summary, a Bachelor of Technology (BTech) program offers a comprehensive and flexible educational path for individuals interested in engineering and technology. With its diverse specializations, practical approach, and focus on innovation, BTech equips students with the knowledge and skills needed to excel in the dynamic field of engineering. This program opens doors to numerous career opportunities in various industries.

BTech Subject List: Exploring the Core and Elective Courses

In the Bachelor of Technology (BTech) program, the curriculum is thoughtfully structured to encompass a wide range of subjects tailored to each specialization. Let's dive into the breakdown of BTech subjects, highlighting core courses, elective options, and the practical components of the program.

Core Subjects (Semesters 1-4)

The foundational core subjects are primarily covered during the first to fourth semesters of the BTech program. These subjects lay the groundwork for a comprehensive understanding of engineering principles and applications. Core subjects typically include:

Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Engineering Sciences, English, Mechanics, Electrical Technology, Programming, Engineering Drawing and Graphics, Data Structures, and Technical Arts.

Professional and Elective Courses (Semesters 5-8)

The latter half of the BTech program, spanning semesters five to eight, introduces students to a diverse array of professional and elective courses. These courses offer specialization options and allow students to tailor their education to match their interests and career objectives. Some examples of these advanced courses include:

Humanities, Advanced Digital System Design, Advanced Coding Theory, Social Sciences, and Practical Learning

In addition to theoretical coursework, BTech programs emphasize practical learning through laboratory work and project seminars. These hands-on experiences are integral to the development of practical skills and the application of theoretical knowledge in real-world scenarios.

Elective Freedom

One of the notable features of BTech programs is the freedom students have in selecting elective courses. Students can choose electives based on their interests, drawing from various departments within their college or institute. This flexibility enables students to customize their education to align with their unique career aspirations and areas of expertise.

MBBS, which stands for Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, is a highly coveted course for aspiring doctors. This undergraduate program spans five and a half years and is offered only in full-time mode due to its rigorous curriculum and emphasis on practical anatomy and related subjects.

The MBBS journey comprises 4.5 years of intensive on-campus learning followed by a year-long internship. This program typically consists of nine semesters, categorized into three phases: Pre-Clinical, Para-Clinical, and Clinical. These semesters cover a diverse range of subjects through a combination of theoretical and practical classes.

Year-wise Curriculum for MBBS Course: As a full-time degree course, MBBS is divided into nine semesters over 4.5 years, each categorized into different phases and subjects:

1st Year (Pre-Clinical): Semesters I & II covering Anatomy, Biochemistry, and Physiology.

2nd Year (Para-Clinical): Semesters III, IV & V encompassing Community Medicine, Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Pathology, Pharmacology, and Microbiology.

3rd Year (Clinical): Semesters VI & VII focusing on subjects like Community Medicine, ENT, and Ophthalmology.

4th Year (Clinical): Semesters VIII & IX, delving into Psychiatry, Dermatology & Venereology, Pediatrics, Anesthesiology, Orthopedics, Obstetrics & Gynecology.

What Comes After MBBS: Upon successfully completing their MBBS, students earn the title of qualified doctors. Some MBBS graduates opt for further specialization by pursuing degrees like Master of Surgery (MS), Doctor of Medicine (MD), and Master of Chirurgiae (MCh).

Others choose to begin practicing immediately while concurrently preparing for post-graduate medical entrance exams. MBBS graduates find opportunities in various healthcare settings such as hospitals, nursing homes, super-specialty clinics, medical clinics, health departments, and more.

Top Specializations After MBBS: Medical students often pursue various specializations following MBBS, including:

  • Medicine
  • General Surgery
  • Cardiology
  • Pediatrics
  • Oncology
  • Nephrology
  • Neurology
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Dermatology
  • Ophthalmology

Emerging Trends in MBBS: Medicine is an ever-evolving field, and MBBS, as its foundational course, is no exception. The MBBS curriculum adapts to the latest trends in medicine, integrating cutting-edge technologies like Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning, and Robotics.

Recent research has led to advancements in medical procedures, surgical techniques, pharmaceuticals, and vaccines, offering enhanced patient convenience. The COVID-19 pandemic underscored the potential of technology and digital solutions in healthcare. Consequently, MBBS curricula may incorporate fields such as AI, Cloud Computing, and the Internet of Things (IoT).

Virtual Reality (VR) and Extended Reality (XR) technologies are increasingly used to train future doctors and surgeons. These technologies enable close observation of human organ functions without risking patient safety or using cadavers. They are also applied in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions, marking a significant shift in medical education and practice.





Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram


Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune


Siksha `O` Anusandhan, Bhubaneswar


Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai


Datta Meghe Institute of Higher Education and Research, Wardha


Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology, Bhubaneswar


Chettinad Academy of Research and Education, Kelambakkam


Pandit Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Post Graduate Institute of
Medical Sciences (PGIMS), Rohtak


B. J. Medical College, Ahmadabad